Drug Induced Gynecomastia
Gynecomastia can be triggered by a wide array of prescribed and recreational drugs, however, typically it only occurs from sustained use. Medication used to treat high blood pressure or heart problems can have this side effect. Examples include Digoxin, Spironolactone, ACE (angiotensin-converting-enzyme) inhibitors, and CCBs (calcium channel blockers).
Medication for managing depression such as tricyclic antidepressants and Diazepam can trigger the condition, as can antiretroviral drugs (for HIV), and some antibiotics (for example, metronidazole, minocycline, isoniazid).
Hormonal preparations such as testosterone and anabolic steroids are used for a variety of medical purposes, as well as by athletes and bodybuilders to improve performance. However, excess drug not used by the body can end up converted to estrogens or their agonists, which in turn can trigger gynecomastia.
Prostate cancer medication such as anti-androgens can impair the synthesis of male anabolic hormones, including testosterone, and cause breast development.
Recreational drugs (for example, cannabis and heroin) and alcohol can induce glandular tissue proliferation after a long-term abuse.
Serious health issues can cause gynecomastia due to their effects that alter the body’s natural hormonal balance. Examples include hypogonadism, hyperthyroidism, kidney failure, liver failure, cirrhosis, and certain tumors (testes, adrenal glands, or pituitary gland).